In the work of Emil Nolde, a member of the celebrated Brücke [Bridge] circle, the aesthetics of German Expressionism acquired a programmatic note. (The Brücke was founded in Dresden and lasted from 1905 to 1913; other members included Ernst-Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Haeckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Max Pechstein and Otto Müller). Nolde turned art into a cluster of personal experiences, sacrificing precision of form for the sake of maximum expression. His main expressive device was now colour. The colour in his pictures and drawings gushes out like lava, sometimes hot and bright, sometimes sombre and anxious. Painting turned into "a great sacrament, part of our experience of the soul which is floating in our world."